BRAIN TUMORS

5 of 100 brain tumors are associated with genetic structure

Corner Tumor

Corner Tumor

Intracranial schwannomas constitute 8-10% of all intracranial tumors. Vestibular schwannoma (VS), acoustic neuroma (AN), VIII. nerve schwannoma, peripheral glioma are called with different names such as the most commonly used name is VS .

It is also called a corner tumor because it is seen in the cerebellopontine angle (around the corner). Cerebellopontin angle (CPA) is the most common tumor and is seen in 75-90%. It is more common in women.

Who Are Under Risk?

  • Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients - a disease with familial transition. If there is NF2 in family members, the risk of developing acoustic neurinoma is higher than the ones without.
  • People who spend a long time in noisy environments - work noise or loud music can cause this situation.

Symptoms

  • Hearing loss - may take many years to develop, so the person may not be aware of the hearing loss and usually starts asymmetrically.
  • Tinnitus, buzzing

What are Diagnostic Tests?

  • Audiogram; it is performed by an audiologist and the hearing is evaluated by the person's responses to the test.

What Is The Treatment?

  • If the mass can be removed by protecting the hearing with the surgical method, however, if the hearing loss has already developed, the recovery of the hearing after surgery is not expected.

Colloid Cyst

Colloid Cyst

Colloid cyst is a rare benign tumor that is usually located in the rostral part of the third ventricle.

Epidemiology

Colloid cysts constitute 0.5-1% of all brain tumors.

Pathology

Colloid cysts are monolayer epithelial cells on the surface and collagen connective tissue in the stroma structure.

Clinical Findings

Some of the patients are completely asymptomatic and can be diagnosed by MR which is incidentally taken.

Radiological Examinations

Nowadays, colloid cyst is diagnosed by CT and MRI.

Treatment

The treatment of colloid cysts incidentally found in asymptomatic individuals should be discussed.

Pituitary Tumors

The Place And Functions Of Pituitary
What Is Hypofized Tumor, In Whom Is Seen?
Symptoms Based On Type And Features
General Symptoms
Diagnosis Methods
Treatment Methods

Childhood Brain Tumors

Childhood Brain Tumors

Central nervous system (CNS) tumors in children vary due to histological types and clinical behavior. All childhood cancers are most 3rd frequent in Turkey , In the United States and in developed countries is the most 2nd common pediatric tumor group.

While only 1% of all tumors in adults are brain tumors, in children, after the blood cancers (such as leukemia and lymphoma), is the most common brain tumors. 20% of all childhood tumors are brain tumors. In adults, only 10% of brain tumors are located in the cerebellum, while in children 50% are located in the cerebellum and brain stem.

Symptoms and Findings

Supratentorial (30-40%)

  • Cerebral hemisphere-hemiparesis, spasticity, convulsion (focal or generalized)
  • Parasellar / suprasellar-endocrinopathy (growth retardation, diabetes insipitus, pubertal disorders)
  • Hypothalamus-diencephalic syndrome (infants), development and behavioral problems
  • Optical path-vision field, acuity and color vision disorder, optic atrophy, nystagmus, tilting of the head

Risk Factors

    Relationship with familial diseases

    The most common association is phakomatosis.

  • Optic glioma and meningioma in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1
  • Ependymoma, astrocytoma in patients with tuberous sclerosis
  • It is known that hemangioblastoma, pheochromocytoma and retinal tumor are more common in patients with von-Hippel-Lindau disease.
  • Brain tumors are common in Li-Fraumeni syndrome, also known as cancerous family syndrome

Diagnosis

  • CT indispensable diagnostic method in CNS tumors.
  • Head radiography is a method that can be used as a first step.
  • Angiography may be used to determine whether vascular tumor is embolized before craniotomy in order to exclude vascular malformation in marked hypervascular tumors (such as choroid plexus papillomas, hemangioblastoma) and reduce intraoperative bleeding.

Treatment

  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiotherapy
  • Gamma-knife (stereotactic radiosurgery)
  • Ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement (palliative)

Arachnoid Cysts

Arachnoid Cysts

Arachnoid cysts may be primary or congenital, and secondary can be develope based on extraaxial hematoma, trauma, tumor or infection.

Embryology

A review of the information about the embryology of the meninges and subarachnoid space can shed light on the development of arachnoid cysts.

Pathogenesis

The hemorrhage sighting in most of the neonates and children, except for trauma and inflammation, is provement that the development of arachnoid cysts is congenital.

Epidemiology

Sylvian fissure cysts are the most common type with a rate of 49%. Cerebellopontine corner cysts in the second order (11%), supracollicular cysts (10%), vermian and suprasellar cysts (9%)

Findings and Symptoms

Approximately 75% of intracranial arachnoid cysts occur before 3 years of age. The findings vary according to the location of the cyst. Some are life-long asymptomatic.

Diagnosis

Intracranial arachnoid cysts are diagnosed with increased number of prenatal ultrasonography. This method especially in cerebral malformations is a noninvasive, inexpensive diagnostic method and is an effective screening tool.

Treatment

Numerous studies have reported that arachnoid cysts in different localities with spontaneous resorption or regression have been reported with conservative approach. In asymptomatic patients, conservative approach is generally recommended.

Surgical

Craniotomy for cyst wall excision and / or fenestration is recommended as the first approach. In some studies, long-term clinical success rates with wide fenestration and cyst excision have reached 73% -96%.